The study titled “Time Balance and Family Functioning: The Role of Time Perspective in the Cohesion and Adaptability of Families with Adolescents” by Cristián Oyanadel et al. investigates the relationship between time perspective and family functioning in families with adolescent children. Utilizing the FACES IV and ZTPI assessments, the research analyzes data from 276 parents, exploring how the parents’ perspective of time—past positive, past negative, future, present hedonistic, and present fatalistic—correlates with family cohesion and adaptability.

The findings reveal that positive attitudes towards past and future events are significant predictors of both family cohesion and adaptability. Specifically, families exhibiting higher cohesion and adaptability are associated with a more positive past and future-oriented time perspective. Conversely, a negative past orientation is linked to reduced family cohesion and adaptability. The study emphasizes the importance of a balanced time perspective (BTP) and its association with healthier family functioning.

The research distinguishes between different family types based on cohesion and adaptability levels, demonstrating that balanced families (high in both cohesion and adaptability) tend to have a more positive time perspective compared to dysfunctional families (low in both cohesion and adaptability). Moreover, the study suggests that cohesive families are similar to balanced families in their time perspective, indicating that cohesion might play a more critical role in the association between a balanced time perspective and family functioning than adaptability.

The study’s limitations include its cross-sectional design, reliance on self-reported measures, and its sample, which may not be representative of the wider population due to being a convenience sample from Chile. Future research is suggested to explore these relationships in other stages of the family life cycle and to utilize mixed methods for a more comprehensive understanding of the processes involved.

In conclusion, the study highlights the significant role of time perspective in family functioning, particularly in families with adolescents. It suggests that interventions aimed at improving family functioning could benefit from incorporating strategies to foster a more positive and balanced time perspective among parents.

Oyanadel, C., Worrell, F. C., Pinto-Vigueras, J., Betancur, S., Tamara Véliz Tapia, Au-Castro, M., . . . Peñate, W. (2024). Time balance and family functioning: The role of time perspective in the cohesion and adaptability of families with adolescents. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 14(1), 117. doi: