The article “Does Parenting Moderate the Association Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adolescents’ Future Orientation?” investigates the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), parenting, and adolescents’ future orientation. The study uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children K Cohort, comprising 1177 adolescents aged 16-17​​.

Key Concepts and Background:

  • Future Orientation: This concept refers to adolescents’ thoughts, perceptions, and actions regarding their future. It’s linked with various social, behavioral, and emotional outcomes across the lifespan. A lack of healthy future orientation may lead adolescents to make short-term decisions, take risks, and be poorly prepared for adulthood. This can increase the risk of negative outcomes like inter-partner violence, risk-taking behaviors, criminality, mental health issues, substance use, low educational attainment, and low occupational status​​.
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs): ACEs include various types of maltreatment and household dysfunction, such as abuse, neglect, parental separation or divorce, domestic violence, mental health conditions, and substance use problems. The study focuses on the impact of these adversities on adolescents’ future orientation​​.
  • Parenting: The study examines the role of parenting in the context of ACEs. Effective parenting, characterized by warmth, communication, and monitoring, might support adolescents’ development of future orientation, while hostile parenting could impede it​​.

Study Hypotheses:

  1. Adolescents who experienced ACEs are at greater risk of having poor future orientation.
  2. The risk for poor future orientation is greater for adolescents with cumulative adversity than those with singular hardships.
  3. Effective parenting (warmth, communication, monitoring) will attenuate the relationship between adversity and future orientation, while ineffective parenting (hostility) will strengthen it​​.


  • The study utilized the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an Australian longitudinal dataset investigating social, economic, and cultural factors influencing children and adolescents’ well-being.
  • The sample included adolescents who had data on future orientation, adversity experiences, parenting practices, and demographic measures.
  • Measures included the Future Outlook Inventory for future orientation, ACEs, and parenting practices (warmth, hostility, communication, monitoring)​​.


  • The study found that both singular and multiple types of adversity were associated with a risk for low future orientation. Higher hostility, lower communication, and lower monitoring in parenting were also linked to low future orientation.
  • Contrary to the hypotheses, parenting did not moderate the relationship between ACEs and future orientation. This indicates that while adverse experiences negatively impact adolescents’ future direction, good or bad parenting quality does not significantly alter this relationship​​.
  • In the logistic regression model, gender differences emerged, with boys having higher odds of low future orientation compared to girls. However, the study did not find significant differences in future orientation between adolescents with one type of adversity and those with multiple types​​.


  • The study underscores the importance of considering both the quality of parenting and the experience of adversity in understanding adolescents’ future orientation.
  • While effective parenting is beneficial, it does not necessarily mitigate the negative impact of ACEs on future orientation. This finding suggests that interventions targeting future orientation in adolescents should focus on addressing the adversities themselves alongside promoting positive parenting practices.


Chainey, C., Burke, K., & Haynes, M. (2022). Does parenting moderate the association between adverse childhood experiences and adolescents’ future orientation? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 31(9), 2359-2375. doi: