The study titled “Adverse Childhood Experiences and Depression: The Mediating Role of Resilience and Emotional Regulation” by Shaimaa Mosad Mohamed Elrefaay and Ayat Saif Elyzal focuses on the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on depression and explores the mediating roles of resilience and emotional regulation. The researchers collected data from 200 women aged 17 to 77 years who were psychiatric outpatients, using self-reported questionnaires assessing child adversity, depressive symptoms, resilience, and emotional regulation. They found a positive correlation between a subscale of the ACE-IQ and depression, indicating that childhood trauma is associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms, especially among individuals with lower resilience. The study highlights resilience as a key mediator between childhood trauma and depression, suggesting that individuals who experienced childhood trauma may benefit from interventions focused on strengthening resilience and improving coping strategies.

The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive research design, recruiting participants from a clinic of Tanta Mental Health Psychiatric Hospital in Egypt. It used previously validated Arabic versions of various questionnaires, including the Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9).

The findings revealed that resilience partially mediated the relationship between the severity of ACEs and subsequent depression, accounting for 82% of the variance in depression. However, emotional regulation did not significantly mediate this relationship. The researchers also acknowledged several limitations of their study, such as its cross-sectional design, the specific demographic of the participants, and potential biases in self-reported data.

Overall, the study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between childhood trauma and depression and highlights the importance of resilience in mitigating depressive symptoms among individuals who have experienced ACEs. It suggests that resilience-building programs might be beneficial for survivors of childhood trauma to reduce depressive symptoms and prevent recurrences of depression.


Elrefaay, S. M. M., & Elyzal, A. S. (2024). Adverse Childhood Experiences and Depression: The Mediating Role of Resilience and Emotional Regulation. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 62(1), 45-54. DOI: 10.3928/02793695-20230726-06​​.